Kamis, 18 Februari 2010

Aquarium nitrogen cycle and cycling Including nitrification

Aquarium nitrogen cycle and cycling Including nitrification, denitrification, cycling and Methods
INTRODUCTION:

Nitrogen is an essential element for life on Earth. Nitrogen is very important in our biosphere, where the total nitrogen of 78% of the atmosphere, and is part of all living tissues. It is a component of amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids. With the exception of carbon, nitrogen is the most universal of life. Life could not, without nitrogen. Nitrogen is responsible for developing ecologically crucial, nitrogen compounds are also necessary for some organisms metabolic functions and respiration.

All living organisms, from fish to plants that have large amounts of nitrogen assimilated in their tissues. Nitrogen is an essential factor for the formation of proteins and nucleic acids. Each organization, in addition to your aquarium nitrogen, from fish to corals, live rock, plants. The introduction of food also adds nitrogen. Dead or Alive, are organic compounds, and have the same characteristics as nitrogen-containing fish, plants, invertebrates, and in addition to your aquarium. Inorganic nitrogen has two possibilities: the atmosphere and the new water. Atmospheric nitrogen (N2), is built into our aquarium water by nitrogen-fixing bacteria) of cyanobacteria as ammonia (NH3. inorganic nitrogen compounds out of our tap water or well water and take in our aquarium, often such as nitrates or nitrates. Reverse osmosis can remove most of this too.

NITRIFICATION:

When an organism dies, it will fix nitrogen from plants or animals in inorganic chemical ammonia through the process of bacterial decomposition moves. Ammonia is also produced by bacteria in the degradation of proteins. This process is called mineralization and is the result of the metabolism of food. However, ammonia is made of both products of metabolism and mineralization. The decomposition (mineralization) process produces large amounts of ammonia (NH3), through the process of ammoniafication. Heterotrophic microorganisms decompose the organic compounds used in the field as a source of carbon. Ammonia (NH3) is a byproduct of this consumption. Ammonia, in its neutral state, exists as ammonium (NH4 +).

Ammonia (NH 4) is treated more. Absorption of crops (eg Chickweed) and algae ammonia and ammonium directly for biosynthesis. The rest are distributed most products used by bacteria in a process of nitrification. Ammonia has not been long in a healthy aquarium, fortunately. Nitrifiers Nitrosomonas how fast break less toxic ammonia into nitrite (NO2). During this process, some types of bacteria strip the ammonia molecules of hydrogen as an energy source. Oxygen molecules are then attached to the removal of nitrogen oxide to form nitrite (NO2). Another group of bacteria (Nitrobacter) using the enzyme nitrite oxidase, which later) for the conversion of nitrites to nitrates (NO3 responsible. This nitrate can be used by plants as a nutrient only, or can be further broken down into nitrogen (N2) through the activity of anaerobic bacteria such as Pseudomonas.

It should be noted, that is) in the absence of oxygen (oxidative processes of nitrification, all to do this. It should be noted that responsibility in recent studies of Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter are not the same freshwater nitrification in salt water.

Biofiltration:

Nature can pack a number of bacteria in the small town, is to the benefit of the aquarium. For bacterial growth, all that is required is ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. This is the beginning of the process of nitrogen and the growth of bacterial colonies. Remember, you need oxygen and a lot of area for colonies of bacteria. Wet / dry filters, sponge filter, ceramic media, and the upper layers of loosely packed gravel are all sources for the accumulation of bacteria. If there is not enough space in oxygenated areas of the media filter or gravel is that nitrification may be negative. Water is the path of least resistance, so if it is a filter or gravel, a building of non-nitrifying bacterial slime or too close, and that nitrification are packed not attained. Sponge filters or pre-filters are inexpensive filter for half the colonies of bacteria. Wet / dry filters and live rock (or are) in marine aquariums excellent sources of bio-filtration in larger aquariums. Bio-wheels are very popular, but in my head in my maintenance activities, are exaggerated. They tend to accumulate to stop and hard water deposits, and although the work, the tests showed little difference in aquariums they are removed, compared to wet-dry filter or sponge filter. Canister vacuum filters are also good sources of nitrification, while the media use the right (for example, ceramic rings) and the media are not packed too tight and is regularly washed.

Denitrification:

It is the process of conversion of nitrate (NO3) to nitrogen (N2), which dispersed into the atmosphere. This process may take in an environment devoid of oxygen by anaerobic bacteria. This process is common in marine aquariums and is in fine sand and # 00, rock live, right? Mud aquarium?. In freshwater aquariums, this process produces hydrogen sulphide, often fatal, but ppm maintaining an oxygen content of more than 1, this can be avoided. Plant roots are responsible for maintaining this balance of oxygen in the gravel for proper removal of nitrate, a thicker layer of coarse gravel with a space "empty" called plenum is often used for removal of nitrate in seawater and even large freshwater aquarium. This is not to confuse the filters in gravel.

SUMMARY OF airplanes;

Healthy aquarium ammonia and nitrites at 0 ppm in a healthy freshwater aquarium nitrates should be 15-50 ppm (below 15 ppm, it is not healthy for a freshwater aquarium plants). Nitrates in saltwater aquarium healthy should be below 40 ppm. Should be in a healthy environment Reef Marine Aquarium nitrate below 20 ppm (or less).

AQUARIUM CYCLING:

This substantial additional benefits arising from the continued reduction of nitrate by bacterial action in the plenary. It is not my favorite, cycling (it was one of the links) is to filter media (sponges work better transmission quality) by an established aquarium with some gravel, then slowly bring the fish to one or two days. The method to add? In old age? Media is much faster (you still have to take slow) and offers all the necessary bacteria which is the only negative, rarely encountered by pathogens to your aquarium, but I have this problem. To prevent this transfer of pathogens and parasites, use a single source media, where no new fish in 30 days, all parameters of water were added to well, and, if possible, the UV (though not necessary) . Also note that many pathogens such as pseudomonas are usually present in a healthy aquarium, but when it is stressed fish, the fish are in poor health because of poor diet and lack of sufficient minerals and / or conditions of 'water are anything but desirable - these are opportunistic pathogens and cause disease in fish. We have this method to our route maintenance aquarium for years and has never lost a fish of ammonia or nitrite poisoning, and the transfer of the disease was minimal.

There are many products for cycling to be available, but most do not work, in my opinion (even if well fed and cared for BioSpira effect).

Another method is fishless cycling where a scent of pure ammonia is poured into the aquarium (3-5 drops per liter of pure ammonia) to get your ammonia level to 4-5 ppm. Then it takes about 3-8 weeks to ride the bowls. Although this approach enjoys increasing popularity, I can not recommend, not because it does not work (), but because human nature to want to fish before he takes 3-8 weeks for this method to add.

Another method is the gradual addition of fish feed an otherwise empty aquarium) (no fish. This can be a very effective means of cycling, which is preferred by many experienced aquarists. The method to add? In old age? Media is much faster (you still need to take slow) and offers all the necessary bacteria which is the only negative, rarely encountered by pathogens to your aquarium, but I have this problem

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