Kamis, 16 Juli 2009

[] Dietary Approach

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The goal of achieving optimal fatty acid nutrition must be approached by
altering the fatty acid composition of the day-to-day meal pattern. If the diet
is high in saturated fats, more of the positions on the glycerol backbones will
be taken up by saturated fats. If the diet is high in omega-6 fats or
hydrogenated fats, more of the positions will be taken up by those fatty acids.
If one can begin to increase the consumption of known health-enhancing fats,
then the triglyceride and phospholipid pool will convert. This will in turn
exert beneficial effects on membrane physiology and provide precursors for
eicosanoids that exert health-enhancing rather than health-robbing
effects.OMEGA- 6 RECOMMENDATIONS Various recommendations by research
organizations have indicated certain minimum dietary levels for essential fatty
acids. For example, for humans, the World Health Organization suggests that 3%
of calories should consist of essential fatty acids for an adult and 5% for
children. The essential fatty acids they specify are linoleic and linolenic
acids. Specific recommendations made by United States governmental agencies
suggest that linoleic acid should comprise approximately 12% of calories. Some
argue this should be increased to as much as 10% for optimal or therapeutic
effects.But this minimum recommendation for linoleic acid is not only met by
modem food sources, it is usually exceeded to the extreme. For example, the
average American would need only to consume about 45 milligrams of linoleic acid
per kilogram of body weight per day, but they are consuming over 300. The same
disparity exists for animals on modern processed foods.High dietary omega six
fatty acids are common but essential fatty acid deficiencies are paradoxically
also common. This is due to a variety of factors. The increasing use of warm
weather seeds, which now predominate in modern agriculture, provides the excess
supply. The "fat tooth? that modern cultures have is satisfied by large portions
of omega-6 oils in processed foods. The discovery of cholesterol in
atherosclerotic plaques, leading to the conclusion that cholesterol should be
excluded from the diet, also led to increased consumption of vegetable (omega-6)
fats. Although exceeding the minimums quantitatively is apparently easy, the
quality of fatty acids is threatened by the very nature of processing itself,
which can readily degrade essential fatty acids into nonutilizable or even toxic
forms. The primary goal should therefore be to decrease omega-6 fatty acids in
quantity and increase their quality while at the same time increasing the
omega-3 to omega-6 ratio in the diet.OMEGA-3 RECOMMENDATIONS Sources of omega-3
oils include fish, wild meat and animal products from animals on high omega-3
diets, as well as certain seeds such as flaxseed, chia, rape, cold-weather nuts
and soybeans. Other sources include mosses, ferns, alfalfa, the bark of certain
trees, and phytoplankton which have the metabolic machinery (desaturase and
elongase enzymes) within chloroplasts to convert omega-6's to omega-3's. But
normally these sources are not consumed to any degree by non-wild higher
mammals. Wild animals have not only less fat, but a higher omega-3 to omega-6
fatty acid ratio in tissues.1 (Fig. 30)The recommendation for linolenic acid
(plant source omega-3) to prevent deficiency is .54% of calories.2 Others
suggest a level ranging from 0.8% to 1.2%.3 More important than absolute amounts
of linolenic acid would be the ratio corresponding to linoleic acid and perhaps
other fatty acids. Clinical effectiveness, as can be predicted from a synergonic
view, has been related to balance rather than dose.4,5 The ideal ratio can be
deduced from the respective levels of these oils in many common natural foods
and also the ratio which exists in mother's milk. This ratio seems to be
approximately 5: 1, with linoleic acid comprising the greater proportion. (Fig.
33)Unfortunately some American mothers have ratios exceeding 30: 1.6,7 A minimum
of 11/2 grams per day of linolenic acid for humans has been suggested for
maintenance and over 100 grams per day have been utilized in therapy.8Omega-3
fish oils consumed specifically to treat or prevent cardiovascular disease
should make up 2% of daily calorie consumption according to some researchers.
This would amount to approximately five grams per day. As much as 10-20 grams or
even more per day has also been suggested.9 Some, however, report that
relatively small doses can create a beneficial effect.10 Others report an
unfavorable shift in LDL-C and LDL-apoprotein B concentrations in low doses
compared to the higher ones.11 Such confusion and contradiction abounds when
attempting to design diet based on doses of isolated nutrients... benefits are
possible but so are dangers.OMEGA-3 DANGERS There are a variety of dangers
associated with the consumption of high levels of fish oils. Increased bleeding
time may create risks for cerebral vascular accident and epistaxis (nose
bleed).12,13 Fish oils have recently been shown to increase LDL levels and thus
potentially predispose to cardiovascular disease rather than prevent it.14
Depletion of body reserves of vitamin E used to stabilize these highly reactive
oil molecules (potential steatitis, yellow fat disease, may result but is
prevented with vitamin E supplementation -- the dose required being up to six
times normal levels), free radical and peroxide generation from the spontaneous
degradation of these oils, and over-consumption of heavy metals (mercury etc.)
and chlorinated hydrocarbons or toxins which may concentrate in fish
oils.15,16Since fish are higher on the food chain than plant sources of omega-3,
the risk of toxin concentration is of course greater. Although linolenic acid is
believed to be approximately 1/5 as effective in some therapies as EPA derived
directly from fish oil (since it must go through enzymatic steps to convert to
EPA), many would argue that this is the preferred source of omega-3 fatty acids
since this dietary source could simply permit the body to regulate its own
requirement for EPA. 17,18OMEGA-9 RECOMMENDATIONS Omega-9 oils derived from
olive and other sources are not considered an essential dietary fatty acid.
However, an impressive body of evidence indicates their health and nutritional
benefits. Doses of as high as 10% of dietary fats, or 1 ounce of olive oil per
day is one recommendation based upon research on the effect of omega-9 fatty
acids on various health parameters.19-21PHOSPHOLIPID RECOMMENDATIONS
Phospholipids are a predominant part of all cellular and organelle membranes and
thus are an extremely important biochemical component. They are particularly
rich in brain tissue, sphingosines, and in sphingomyelin. The choline fraction
of phosphotidl choline is a component of the neuronal transmitter acetylcholine.
There is no dietary requirement for phospholipids since the body is capable of
manufacturing them. However, there is a considerable body of medical literature
indicating the beneficial effects of supplementing lecithin, phosphotidl
choline, to the diet. A dosage of choline ranging from three to twelve grams per
day has been used for such conditions as tardive dyskinesia, pre-senile
dementia, Alzheimer's disease, manic depression, diabetic peripheral neuropathy,
and a wide range of other neurological and locomotor as well as autonomic
dysfunctions in humans and animals. 22-28SATURATED FAT RECOMMENDATIONS There is
no recognized dietary requirement for saturated fat. However, it is and always
has been a part of dietary makeup. Although saturated fats have received
considerable "bad press," recent studies have shown stearic acid (18:0) to
actually decrease blood cholesterol levels.29,30 (A method of determining the
level of saturation of fats is to place oil in the refrigerator. Saturated fats
will become hard, a mixture of saturates and unsaturates will become cloudy,
whereas a pure unsaturate will remain liquid.)Saturated fat intake, as with
cholesterol intake, may be more of a concern because of its relationship to
particular dietary patterns. The modern, highly processed, high fat diets
invariably have high saturated fats and high cholesterol levels and are
positively associated with various degenerative diseases. Evidence supports the
relationship between low saturated fats in the diet and decreased serum
cholesterol levels. Additionally, the ratio of saturated fats to unsaturated
fats is an important criterion for measuring risks. Maintaining an unsaturated
fat to saturated fat ratio of 3 to 1 or greater and keeping total fats to less
than 30% of dietary calories are widely accepted as guidelines for decreasing
cardiovascular risk.31GUIDELINES The above discussion is not meant as a
recommendation to carefully measure oils in the diet on a gram scale or to seek
a potpourri of capsules. The inference from the data is the value of natural
whole, fresh foods. If these are carefully selected, the quantities and ratios
have already been taken care of by the best chemist of all, nature.Certain
practical rules of thumb will help alter the essential fatty acid content of the
diet to enhance health: 1) Consume increasing amounts of fresh, whole
organically grown fruits and vegetables, seeds and nuts; 2) If cooking is done,
cook without oils or cook with olive oil, high omega-9 commercial products, lard
or butter (since these saturated fats are the most heat stable against
oxidation); 3) Minimize cooking temperatures and try to eliminate cooking as
much as possible; 4) Incorporate natural raw foods into the diet known to
contain high levels of omega-3 and -9 oils; 5) Increase the ratio of omega-3
fatty acids to omega-6's; 6) If wishing to derive omega-3 fatty acids from fish,
poach or broil fish known to contain high levels of omega-3 fatty acids (Fig.
33); 7) If fatty acid oil supplements are used, they should contain balances of
the oils as described above and be properly stabilized with antioxidants
(natural, if possible), packaged in light impervious safe containers (some
plastic components will leach into oils) and nitrogen flushed. Supplemental
vitamin E (200-400 I.U. per day) should also be consumed when any isolated fats
From a commercial standpoint, this new knowledge creates excellent opportunities
to improve food nutritional value as Dr. Kinsella of Cornell's Institute of Food
Science points out:"The food industry (both producers and processors) should
explore methods for adjusting the amounts and ratios of PUFA's in food products.
Successfully increasing the w-3 PUFA content of foods will require innovative
approaches for controlling autooxidation and off-flavor development in such
foods. The discovery of multiple and potent effects of eicosanoids and the
apparent beneficial effects of w-3 PUFA's has invigorated biochemical lipid
research and has presented opportunities for making significant progress in the
amelioration of atherosclerosis, perturbed immune functions. Cancer, arthritis,
and thrombosis, the major causes of death and debility in the U.S. Knowledge of
the links between dietary fatty acids and the incidence and severity of these
degenerative diseases will provide further rationale for modifying the lipid
prof1les of existing food products and developing new food products to improve
nutrition and the quality of life of this and future generations."32Whether
industry will responsibly act on this information remains to be seen. Since
considerable pressure exists within the modern corporate environment to
prioritize the bottom line, rather than simply "do good," change will not likely
occur until consumer demand creates a commerciable opportunity. An informed
consumer using the power of the dollar will therefore likely be the ultimate
reason our food supply changes for the better.References available within book
text, click the following link to view this article on wysong.net:
further reading, or for more information about, Dr Wysong and the Wysong
Corporation please visit www.wysong.net or write to wysong@wysong.net. For
resources on healthier foods for people including snacks, and breakfast cereals
please visit www.cerealwysong.com.Dr. Wysong: A former veterinary clinician and
surgeon, college instructor in human anatomy, physiology and the origin of life,
inventor of numerous medical, surgical, nutritional, athletic and fitness
products and devices, research director for the present company by his name and
founder of the philanthropic Wysong Institute. http://www.wysong.net Also check
out http://www.cerealwysong.com - Anti-Google sentiment is on the rise. Web
pundits have tossed around monopoly theories and privacy advocates have warned
of a day of reckoning. While Google has made friends on Wallstreet, it has
disappointed the technical evangelists who were once its fiercest followers.
Google has grown into a big scary company and web watchers are expressing their
concerns about the information Google gleans from their various services.
Google Analytics is free, no one can beat the price, but what is the real cost?
The cost is your data. While not terribly important when analyzed alone, when
aggregated with other information Google has access to, it could be damaging.
Data mining has made the collection of data meaningful. It has become easier to
find patterns and trends in large volumes of data. While any of that
information independent of other data, might be non-threatening or irrelevant to
someone doing analysis, when combined with other data Google has access to, it
can paint a very clear picture of how, not only individual companies are
performing, but the aggregate data could possibly paint a picture of how entire
business sectors or industries are performing. The big question is how will
Google use this information? Will it affect search engine ranking? Will it
influence keyword costs? Paranoia? Lauren Weinstein doesn't seem to think so,
her blog post entitled "The Dark Side of Google"
http://lauren.vortex.com/archive/000108.html , paints a very clear picture of
the danger of a single entity possessing all of the data. According to a recent
USA Today article "In just seven years, Google has emerged as one off the most
influential companies of the 21st century, a multinational whose recent forays
into classified ads, book publishing, video, Wi-Fi and telecom make its data
empire ever more powerful." The article goes on further to quote Jeff Chester,
head of the digital Center for Digital Democracy saying "Google could easily
become the poster child for a national public movement to regulate data
collection". Lets take a look at Google's new analytics tool. As a reporting
tool, Google Analytics offers good features and functionality. Google Analytics
tells publishers who their website referrers are, what pages visitors are
viewing, the length of the visitor stay, what items are purchased. Google
Analytics data can be used to develop new technologies, and optimize pay per
term influence ranking. Google wants to make money, and like it or not, data is
a commodity. Google will likely use the data from their various ventures to
develop new technologies and personalize content. Conspiracy theorists believe
that the Google's aggregate data will also be used to optimize the fees charged
for pay-per-click, influence organic ranking or worse yet sold. Unbeknownst to
many users, privacy advocates say that Google's technology give Google the
ability to collect enormous amounts of data about interests and online habits of
web surfers. That said, Google's growth will continue to motivate privacy
advocates and those in the technology field behind the Attention Truste movement
to work together, to improve how personal information and subscription
information is used online. I expect we will see a lot of energy and effort in
this arena. Lets face it, Google wants to make money; no, now that they are
public they *need* to make money and like it or not, data is a commodity.
Whether Google will use your data or not is still to be determined, but the fact
remains they can if they choose to. Google's storage capacity, is as deep as its
pockets, meaning that it is far ahead of competitors. All of this has motivated
privacy advocates and eyes are on and will continue to be focused on Google and
the type of data they are capable of collecting. About the Author Sharon
Housley manages marketing for FeedForAll http://www.feedforall.com software for
creating, editing, publishing RSS feeds and podcasts. In addition Sharon manages
marketing for NotePage http://www.notepage.net a wireless text messaging
software company.

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